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    浅析英汉道歉语及其道歉策略的挑选(共4篇)

    2016-10-19  校园生活网  本文已影响   字号:T|T

    篇一:浅析英汉道歉语及其道歉策略的挑选(共4篇)

    浅析英汉道歉语及其道歉策略的挑选(共4篇)

    摘要

    道歉是言语交际中的一种言语行为。生活中我们通常会因为不同的原因,以不同的方式向别人道歉或是接受别人的道歉。然而,一提起“道歉”,人们可能会简单地将之理解为“对不起”“请原谅”等言语行为。道歉言语行为通常发生在当说话者(Speaker)有意或无意中冒犯了听话者(Hearer)时而摘取的一种旨在复原两者之间以往特定关系的行为。当一个人在 社会 团体中违背了社会规范或冒犯了他人时,他作出道歉行为,就可以保护此人的人际和谐关系,复原其社会地位,树立优良的个人形象。文章旨在 研究 分析 英汉道歉语及其对道歉策略的挑选的差异,通过阐述道歉的研究现状及其定义、道歉的种类、道歉策略及其制约因素,对中英道歉策略的挑选进行比较,最后从其文化价值体现分析 中国 和 英语 国家道歉言语行为的差异。研究表明,由于英汉文化不同、交际方式和价值取向的不同,从而导致在道歉策略的挑选上也有所不同。

    论文关键词:道歉;种类;社会因素; 影响 ;道歉策略;

    Abstract

    The apology is one kind of speech act in the spoken language communication. In our daily life we may usually apologize to others in different ways or accept others? apologies for different reasons. However , as far as “the apology“ is concerned, people may refer it to the expressions such as “sorry“ or “excuse me“ and so on.. The speech act of the apology is one kind of behavior which usually occurs when the speaker intentionally or accidentally offends the hearer, for the purpose of restoring the former specific relation. When a person has violated the social norm or affronted others in the social group, if he makes apology, he can maintain the interpersonal harmonious relations, restore his social position, and set up the good individual image. This article analyzes the apologies and the differences in the selection of the apology strategies between English and Chinese. The article elaborates the present research situation and the apology?s definitions, the types of the apologies, the apology

    strategies and its restricted factors, carries on the comparison of the selection of apo

    logy strategies between the Chinese and English, and explores the difference in the speech act of the apology between China and the English-speaking country from the characteristic aspect. The result suggests that the different cultures, the different ways of communication and value trend between English and Chinese lead to the differences in the selection of the apology strategies. Key words: Apology; types; social factors; influence; apology strategies;

    近年来,言语行为已成为语用学和社会语言学领域中研究的复要课题之一。作为一种情感性的言语行为,道歉语也受来了许多学者的关注。“英国 哲学 家J.L.Austin最早提出言语行为 理论 (Theory of Speech Acts),他将道歉

    ?apologize?定义为施为语的一种”[1](P82),“Searle 基于Austin的分类,将道歉回于表达类”[2](P92)。“Brown和Levinson提出面子论(The Face Theory)”[3](P102),“指出说话人的道歉行为,表示承认自己的过失,有损面子,是导致说话人正面面子受损的FTA(威逼面子的行为face threatening acts, 简称FTA)”[4](P104),并且“向听话人道歉,表明无意在感情上或行动上伤害听话人是负面礼貌策略是为了满足对方面子上反面的要求”[5](P106)。而最早对道歉语进行具体研究的是Olshtain and Cohen,将道歉语定义为“a

    culture-sensitive speech-act set of semantic formulae or strategies”(一种对文化具有敏锐性、具有一定的语义成分或策略的言语行为组),并提出了最初的道歉言语行为模型。后来,“Blum-Kulka & Olshtain等学者对该模型进行了改进,改进后的模型被纳入?言语行为实现模式的跨文化研究?(CCSARP)项目中。”[6](P247)自CCSARP项目的道歉言语行为子项目设立以来,很多学者(Holmes、Trosborg、Suszczynska、Owen等)对不同语言(新西兰英语、丹麦

    语、匈牙利语、英国英语、美国英语等)与文化中的道歉语进行了研究。但这些研究大多是从道歉策略的整体使用情况对道歉语进行跨文化分析,而对道歉策略的具体安排模式或道歉 内容 的意义却少有涉及。而后,“J·霍姆斯(J.Holmes)对道歉作出定义:假设A 为致歉者, B 为被冒犯者, 道歉是A 为了补偿自己的冒犯行为, 向B 致歉, 以挽回B 的面子, 从而复原A 与B 的平稳的言语行为。”

    [7](P376)

    一、 道歉的种类

    根据道歉的内在含义及其在现实生活中的实际运用,可以把道歉分成以下三种类型:”“从交际(communication)的渠道来划分,可以把道歉分成语言性和非语言性两种形式;从传递的方式来划分,可以把道歉分成口头和书面两种形式;从文体的角度来划分,则有正式和非正式两种形式。”[8](P61)具体如下:

    (一)、语言性和非语言性的道歉

    语言性道歉是通过语言性行为进行的,这是最普通的道歉行为。语言性道歉按道歉行为执行对象的不同,可以是冒犯者一方对被冒犯者一方的直接行为,也可以是通过第三者来传递的间接行为。

    非语言性道歉是通过语言行为以外的所 有道歉行为,它是通过非语言渠道实现的,是不用言别的道歉,属于非语言交际(nonverbal communication)的范畴。在中国,如果一位学生不会回答教师的提问,他总会不好意思地用手搔一搔头以沉默、歉意的微笑对待之。这里,沉默、用手搔头就隐藏着“不好意思,对不起”这样的道歉意义。另外,中国人也有用双手抱拳来表达道歉的意思;中国春秋战

    pk10登陆平台国时期的廉颇对蔺相如的“负荆请罪”也是一种非语言道歉行为,以上这三种道歉形式在英语国家是没有的。需要指出的是,非语言性道歉和言语性道歉并不是完全区别开来使用的。人们在双手抱拳致歉的同时,嘴巴当然也要念叨着:“失礼了”、“给您添麻烦了”之类的话。而廉颇以“肉袒负荆,因宾客至蔺相如门谢罪,曰:鄙贱之人,不晓将军宽至此也。”[9](P2370)

    (二)、口头道歉和书面道歉

    口头道歉是用嘴巴表达道歉的言语,无论是直接道歉或是间接道歉都属于口头道歉,只不过道歉行为的执行者渠道不同而已,即前者是冒犯者自己道歉,而后者是通过第三者来完成的。

    在实际生活中,人们也可以通过写信来表示道歉。如果能用口头解决的事情,人们一般不会摘取书面的形式,因为与口头道歉相比,书面道歉在时间和空间上都存在着一定的缺陷。当然,书面道歉也有长处,比如,在通过第三者转达道歉信息时,比较不会因为传播者有意或无意地由于对语言的曲解而产生新的误会行为。书面致歉表达了致歉者的悔悟之意及补救 方法 ,同时,书面致歉涉及的过错情节一般较为严复。例如,某人家的狗毁坏了邻居家的花木,给人造成的缺失已无法挽回,就得通过一封致歉信再加上实际的补偿行动来请求对方的原谅。如果仅仅是碰撞来别人,是不用这么麻烦地写道歉信的。然而,随着 现代 新的传播方式的使用,书面道歉并非总是表现得比口头道歉正规。比如,人们可以通过广播讲话、电视讲话等方式来传达道歉的意思,而这种道歉方法显得更加规范。

    (三)、正式和非正式道歉

    道歉也有正式和非正式之分,非正式道歉主要用于熟人、朋友、情人、同事等之间,其目的当然仅仅是为了澄清误会,排除隔阂。而正式道歉主要用于媒体与公

    众之间,国与国之间。比如:美国前总统艾森豪威尔曾因U-2飞机飞越苏境一事向前苏联道歉。可见,正式道歉除具有澄清误会之功用外,还具有公诸于众以便让公众晓道谁对谁错的效果。

    二、 道歉策略及其制约因素

    (一)、道歉策略

    “道歉是用来挽救、补偿被冒犯者面子的言语行为。交际者冒犯了别人是因为他违反了社会准则或未满足对方的期望。冒犯行为包括开会迟来、打错电话、忘了带书或没有向路过的熟人打招唤等。”[11](P29)

    pk10登陆平台许多学者对道歉策略(apology strategy) 进行过深入的研究。本文引用贾玉新“将道歉策略分为7 种(其中将“拒绝道歉”作为策略0):

    策略0: 冒犯者拒绝道歉(strategy of rejecting);

    策略1: 轻化自己的冒犯程度(strategy of minimizing);

    策略2: 承认自己的责任(strategy of acknowledging);

    pk10登陆平台策略3: 说明理由(strategy of explaining);

    策略4: 直接道歉(strategy of apologizing);

    策略5: 摘用补偿手段(strategy of offering repair);

    策略6: 下保证(strategy of promising forbearance);

    策略7: 对被冒犯者表示关心(strategy of showing concern)。”[12](P376)

    (二)、道歉策略挑选的制约因素

    语言之外的因素决定道歉策略的挑选。实现道歉策略的语言形式也随语境因素的

    篇二:中英道歉语异同分析

    中英道歉语的使用差异及原因探析

    On the Differences of Apology Speech Act in Chinese and English

    摘要:道歉语是指能够为被冒犯的人挽回面子的一类语言。在全球化日益增强的

    现代社会,中美合作与接触不断增多,但由于社会背景,文化及价值观念的不同,

    在跨文化交际中经常会出现一些误解甚至是冲突。由于任何一种言语行为都反映

    了一定的社会准则和价值,并服务和保护那些价值观,因此,道歉言语行为能够像

    镜子一样折射出中美文化价值的差异。所以,为了在跨文化交际中获得更好的交

    际目的,就有必要对中美道歉语进行跨文化研究。本文第一介绍了道歉语研究的

    国内外现状,接着阐述了道歉语的种类、策略及制约因素,后对中英道歉策略的

    挑选进行比较;最后从文化价值方面分析汉语和英语道歉语的差异。通过研究表

    明, 由于英汉文化不同、交际方式和价值取向的不同, 道歉策略的挑选上也相应

    的有所不同。

    关键词:道歉语,文化差异,道歉策略

    Abstract: The language of apology is a special kind of speech which could provide

    support for the hearer who is offended. In the increasing global world, cooperation

    and contacts between Chinese and Americans are rapidly rising. However, along with

    this are the constant misunderstandings or even conflicts in cross-cultural

    communications due to different cultures and values。 Because any speech act reflects

    a variety of culture norms and values and serves, the speech of apology can act as a

    mirror of certain cultural values in Chinese and English cultures. Therefore, in order

    to help people cultivate intercultural communicative competence and achieve better

    communicative purposes, it is necessary to study the language of apology between

    Chinese and Americans. This paper firstly introduces the study of research to the

    speech of apology both at home and abroad. Then the second part analyzes the

    pk10登陆平台different categories, strategies and restraining factors of the apologized speech.Finally, differences in the speech of language between English and Chinese language

    are probed from the aspects of different cultural values. Through the study, the

    following conclusion is arrived: The cultural differences between English and Chinese, the different communication ways and value orientation directly lead to the different choices of apology strategies。

    Key Words: the speech of apology; cultural differences; apology strategies

    一.Introduction

    In our daily life, people often offend others without any intention. Then the speech act of apology would be employed to get forgiveness and maintain the harmonious interpersonal relationship. But usually people just think the apology speech act as a simple thing, and they never imagine it’s a very complicated language phenomenon. Actually, the apology speech act is an important content of cross-cultural communication for the reason that people from different backgrounds may have different understandings on the same speech act. This kind of cultural-based understanding, which seriously affects the normal cross-cultural communication, is like a gap existing between people in different cultures. So, it is necessary for us to study the widely used apology speech in different languages so that we can better exchange ideas and understand each other in cross-cultural communication.

    二.The present research and classification of apology speech act

    1。 The present research of apology speech

    The British philosopher J.L.Austin firstly put forward the Theory of Speech Acts. He defined 'apologize' as a “implementation speech”. Based on the classification of the Austin, Searle treated “apologize” as an “expression speech". Brown & Levinson, however, regarded apology speech from the perspective of “politeness”. They thought that good manners are reasonable behaviors taken to meet the demand of “face-preservation”. Here "face" means the positive public image of one person. It could be divided into the positive face (hoping to gain approval from others) and negative face (not wanting personal behaviors to be hampered by others). In all kinds of communication, enough attention to other's positive and negative face could ensure us smooth interactions. But Brown & Levinson thought that some speech acts carry

    the inherent nature of threatening the face。 In this case, we need to choose proper strategies to avoid or remedy。 So people deploy apology speech to remedy and maintain each other's face when they realized that the hearer's negative face is threatened。 So the apology speech act is used to restore the relationship between people when we offend others intentionally or unintentionally。 Brown & Levinson thought the following factors were involved as to the threatening of face: (1) the social distance between speakers and hearers; (2) the relevant power of speakers and hearers; (3) speech act inherent in the imposition of the absolute sense。 These are called the "Brown and Levinson's Face Theory (The Face going)"。 But Olshtain and Cohen firstly made a detailed study to apology speech。 And they defined apology language as a culture - sensitive researched - act set of semantic formulae or strategies。 They also proposed the original mode of apology speech act。 Later, scholars represented by Blum Kalka and Olshtain improved the early model and incorporated the improved one into “Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Mode Project" (CCSARP)。

    pk10登陆平台2. The classification of apology speech act

    Among these researchers, Cohen and Olshtain should be mentioned in detail。 They roughly divided apology strategy into five different kinds according to their observations and experiments: 1。the direct expression of apology; 2。 the expression of responsibility to offend others; 3。the explanation to offensive behavior; 4。the Provision of compensation; 5。the promise to discipline oneself。 Actually, two strategies are clearer in the sense of apology and more common in daily life。 The latter three may appear or not because they are related to different situations。 In addition to the above-mentioned five kinds of apology strategies, the speaker can also strengthen or weaken their degree of apology by using adverbs of degree such as "true" and "very” or conjunctions such as “however” or “but” etc。 For example, during the sentence "I'm sorry, but you should also be careful”, the conjunction “but” is used to ease the speaker’s responsibility。

    According to inner meanings and application of apology speech in real life, we put it into the following three types: "from the channels of communication, it is divided

    into verbal and nonverbal forms; from the perspective of stylistics, it could be divided into formal and informal." The following would show these specifically:

    (1) The verbal and nonverbal forms

    Verbal apology, which is the most widely used, is conducted through verbal behavior. Verbal apology could be conducted by different parties: the offender’s direct behavior on the other party offended or a third party’s delivering the behavior. Nonverbal apology could be all kinds of forms except verbal expression. For example, in China, if a student can't answer the teacher's questions, his face may blush with embarrassment or he may scratch his head with the hand and wears the silent even apologetic smile. Here silence and scratching his head implies the apology speech "sorry, I'm sorry." In addition, Chinese also use hands to express the meaning of apology. The idiom "offer a humble apology" originated from China’s Spring and Autumn warring states is also a kind of non-verbal behavior to apologize. These are not seen in English speaking countries. It should be pointed out that nonverbal and verbal apology is not completely separate. People combine verbal with nonverbal behaviors to strengthen their degree of apology. In real life, people also can write to apologize. Showing apology by written also belongs to nonverbal forms. But because of its deficiency in time and space, the written form may create new misunderstanding. And with the use of modern ways of communication, people are provided with more ways to communicate. For example, people can express apology through broadcasting, television, newspaper etc. These methods are more formal.

    (2) The formal and informal ones

    Apology is divided into formal and informal according to the different relationship of the involved two parties。 Informal apology is mainly used for showing apology to acquaintance, friend, lover, colleagues for the purpose of clarifying the misunderstanding and eliminating barriers。 And formal apology is mainly used between the media and the public or between two countries。 For example: The former US President Eisenhower apologized to the Soviet Union for U - 2 planes flying over Sue。 So a formal apology could help clarify the misunderstanding and make the whole in public。

    三.The apology strategies and its cultural-based elements

    1。 The apology strategies

    Apology speech is commonly used in daily life when we interrupt or offend others. We offend others because we violate the social norms or haven’t met each other's expectations. The following behaviors are all offense to others: we were late for the meeting, played wrong phone, forgot to bring book in class or walked past acquaintances without saying "hello". "Many scholars conducted profound study about apology strategies. This paper quoted Professor Jia Yuxin’s (a professor in Harbin Institute of Technology) apology strategies. He divided apology strategies into seven forms:

    Strategy: 0 offender refused to apologize (the strategy of rejecting);

    Strategy 1: light own degree of offense (the strategy of minimizing);

    Strategy 2: admit liability (the strategy of acknowledging);

    Strategy 3: explain the reasons (the strategy of explaining);

    Strategy 4: apologize directly (the strategy of apologizing);

    Strategy 5: try other means to remedy (the strategy of offering repair);

    Strategy 6: guarantee (the strategy of promising forbearance);

    Strategy 7: show concern to the person being offended (the strategy of showing

    concern).

    So we have many apology strategies。 But how we make choices in real life? So we need to discuss major characters that affect our choice。 Many linguistic-factors determine the choice of apology strategies。 The forms of apology strategies also change along with the change of contextual factors。 According to the investigation and study, many social linguists believe that the choice of apology strategies is mainly restricted by social factors。 The following are the most decisive ones:

    (1) The social distance between the offender and the one being offended called “social distance”;

    (2) The relative power between the offender and the one being offended called” relative power”;

    篇三:浅析跨文化交际中的英汉道歉语及其策略

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    42 从电视剧《失望主妇》看委婉语的交际功能 《名利场》中女性命运对比 论女性主义对翻译标准的影响 电影《当幸福来敲门》中蕴涵的美国文化解读 广告语篇中的预设分析 The Application of Rhetorical Devices in English Advertisement 英汉致使事件词汇化模式对比研究 对《愤慨的葡萄》中圣经原型的分析 Analysis of the Subtitle of White Collar under Skopostheorie 歇斯底里的舞台自语者——《觅找格林先生》主题解读 《布罗迪小姐的青春》中的人物冲突分析 pk10登陆平台在企业发展过程中所起的作用 从《诀别了,武器》中看战争对人性的影响 Tradition and Beyond—Reading The Diviners as a Bildungsroman 美国梦的矛盾心理-伟大的盖茨比主题分析 骑士精神与时代精神:论《苹果树》中浪漫主义与现实主义的相持与对话 象征在女性主义小说《占有》中的作用 Influence of Western Food Culture upon Chinese People 由《红楼梦》中人名的英译看中西文化差异 论福克纳《八月之光》中的耶稣形象 相似的母爱,不同的表达——对比研究《黑孩子》和《宠儿》中的母亲形象 探析《玛莎?奎斯特》中玛莎性格的根源 从功能派翻译理论的角度研究中国菜单翻译 From Dormancy to Revival—A Feminist Study on Kate Chopin’s Awakening The Features of Classic-literature-based Movies Showed in Pride and Prejudice The Study on the Teaching of Grammar in Senior High Schools 美国个人主义和中国集体主义的对比与分析 关于高中生英语听力理解中非语言因素的研究 中国英语学习者道歉言语行为的中介语石化现象 《鲁滨逊漂流记》的后殖民主义解读 《太阳照常升起》中“迷惘的一代”人物分析 英语委婉语:礼貌视角下的有意不合作 英语谚语复复修别格的翻译 Yellow Peril–the Image of Fu Manchu in the West Analysis on the Picaresque Elements in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 用合作原则和礼貌原则分析网络谈天室会话的含义 女权主义翻译理论关照下的《唤啸山庄》多个译本比较研究 Using Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs Theory to Analyze Sister Carrie’s Destiny Risk Comparing of Documentary Collection and Letters of Credit The Art and Achievement of Ying Ruocheng's Drama Translation

    43 An Analysis of the Female Characters in Moment in Peking

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    75 On building-up a welcoming ESL classroom atmosphere in Junior High School under the New Curriculum Standards

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    79 玛丽?巴顿的女性意识

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    81 从女性主义角度分析简爱的女性意识

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    84 中式英语与标准英语的差别

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    pk10登陆平台90 对文化差异引起的误译的研究

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    pk10登陆平台93 从《阿甜正传》看美国乐观主义

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    100 A Miniature of Ambivalence and Self-Discovery as Reflected by Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club

    101 A Study on Intercultural Communication of American TV Series

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    108 The Differences of Beauty Standards Between China and America

    109 从目的论看儿童文学翻译--兼评《小王子》中英译本

    110 一个反叛者的肖像--以《土生子》为例

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    pk10登陆平台113 从文化角度看英语习语的汉译

    114 Discussion on How to Arouse the Students’Interests in English Learning

    115 家庭生活中的瑞普?凡?温克尔

    116 《哈利?波特》系列作品中颜色的象征意义

    117 从女性主义探讨托尼?莫里森笔下黑人妇女自我意识的觉醒

    118 论《野性的唤唤》的多复主题

    119 《麦琪的礼物》的叙事技巧分析

    120 跨文化交际视野中的英汉习语研究

    121 希腊神话对英语语言的影响

    122 从中英语言中的幽默表达看中西方思维差异

    123 盖茨比的悲剧成因分析

    124 《野性的唤唤》中的自然主义

    125 苔丝悲剧人生的起因

    126 会话中性别差异的语用研究

    127 从唯美主义角度分析《莎乐美》中邪恶的灵魂

    128 《飘》中生态女性意识的研究

    pk10登陆平台129 从《喧哗与骚动》中看复合式意识流手法

    130 A Diachronic Study on Sexism in English Lexicon

    131 英语政治委婉语的语用功能

    132 A Comparative Study of Refusal in Chinese and American Cultures

    133 《月下独酌》两种英文译本之对比研究

    134 《老人与海》中的孤独

    135 Gone with the Wind: From Novel to Film

    pk10登陆平台136 析《傲慢与偏见》中达西的性格及人物形象

    137 注视与对抗:《屋顶丽人》中的两性战争

    138 Existentialism in Pride and Prejudice

    139 A Study of Narrative Strategies in Beloved

    140 The Influence of the Current American Marital Status on the Christian Views of Marriage 141 增译法在《水晶宫》英译汉翻译中的应用

    142 论《宠儿》中社区与逃离的关系

    143 探究希腊神话对英国戏剧及诗歌的影响

    144 从标记理论看英语词汇性别鄙视现象

    145 从心理学角度试析简爱性格的对立性

    146 《双城记》与《唤啸山庄》的家庭主题对比

    147 中美文化差异对商务谈判的影响

    148 海明威文学作品中青年和老年人物关系对比探究

    149 从《傲慢与偏见》两个汉译本看翻译策略的挑选

    150 《嘉莉妹妹》中的自然主义

    151 谈品牌广告文体特点及其翻译

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    153 浅析《了不起的盖茨比》中的象征主义

    pk10登陆平台154 时事政治汉译英该注意的几个问题

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    156 王尔德童话中的死亡意象解析

    157 对罗伯特?弗罗斯特自然诗的尝试性研究

    158 《唤啸山庄》中女主人公人物分析

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    篇四:中国英语学习者汉英道歉语使用情况分析

    一、引言

    道歉(apology)是一种“解决受害者面子需要、修补冒犯者不当行为并藉此保持双方交际平稳的言语行为”[1],属于表达性的言外行为(illocutionaryact)[2].它旨在引出受害者的原谅及为其提供支持[3].道歉行为在挽回受害者的面子同时威逼了冒犯者的面子,因为道歉时冒犯者往往主动降低自己的社会权力或地位以向对方道歉[4].

    刘思和刘润清[5]调查发觉,中国英语学习者常常混淆英语道歉语Iamsorry和Excuseme的使用,并指出这是因为汉语的语用迁移在受试的中介语系统中发生了影响。他们同时提出,英汉两种道歉语间的对等翻译(Iamsorry对应“对不起”,Excuseme对应“请原谅”)不但引起了汉语道歉语的语用负迁移,还反映了中英文化观念和行为准则上的差异。

    然而该调查并未通过访谈受试以验证其假设。此外,在汉语表达中,Excuseme不一定都被翻译成“请原谅”,且“请原谅”在汉语口语中很少被使用,其出现频率远不及“对不起”那么高。而在该项调查中,受试只有两种汉语道歉语的选项,分别是“请原谅”和“对不起”.根据汉语口语的使用习惯,可以估量大部分的受试会倾向于挑选“对不起”而非“请原谅”.而这种挑选偏向极可能是由母语的口语使用习惯引起的。因此,本文试图探究不同水平的中国英语学习者汉英道歉策略及其道歉语(如I'msorry/Excuseme)的使用情况。

    二、理论依据及相关研究 跨文化语用学研究不同文化背景的人们之间的交际活动,复点在于对比分析不同文化中多种多样的语言活动。Goffman[6]指出,I'msorry和Excuseme在英语会话中都发挥修补功能,是说话者为自己的错误行为进行道歉所使用的话语。根据Saussure的言语行为理论,I'msorry和Excuseme都实现了道歉行为,但它们在不同语境中却有着不同的语用影响[7].其中涉及“礼貌”这一相对概念。“礼貌”与否取决于一系列的社会和文化因素,其中包括“面子威逼程度”.

    Brown和Levinson[8]指出,“面子威逼程度”由三种独立变量的累计效果运算得出:说话者与听话者之间的社会距离(D)、他们之间的相对权力大小(P)和在该特定文化环境中他们各自的绝对地位。“面子威逼论”由此能够为比较不同文化间的礼貌差异提供理论框架。因此,礼貌策略的挑选包含以下变量:交际双方的相对地位(RS)、社会地位(D)以及权力等级(R)。

    如,在与社会距离较远或权力高于自己的另一方谈话时,英语本族语者倾向于使用Excuseme作为句子开头;若是社会距离较近或权力平稳时,则更倾向于使用I'msorry.

    Kasper和Schmidt[9]指出,学界关于中介语语用能力习得顺序的研究不足,且已有研究大部分聚焦于高水平的成年学习者、只关注一语或二语的其中一个方面。因此,中介语语用能力习得顺序的研究仍有待开展[10].Chang[11]调查发觉中国英语学习者试的英语道歉策略资源库,Jebahi[4]利用DCT(DiscourseCompletionTest)方法调查了突尼斯大学生道歉策略的使用情况,与之相似的还有Al-Zumor[12]的研究。这些研究的确为实证性地量化研究二语学习者语用能力的发展提供了崭新的思路和多元的方法,但所涉及的道歉情景数量较少(8-10个),而且只研究一语或二语中的一个方面或只涉及大学生群体,也没有融入被试性别、社会权力高低、“面子威逼”程度等因素。因而本文尝试以道歉策略为例,综合有关因素对比调查不同水平的跨文化双语者其双语语用能力发展异同。

    三、调查方法

    (一)研究问题

    1.以汉语为母语的英语学习者的英汉道歉策略的发展过程是否一致?

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